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fire

WHAT IS FIRE :

It is the chemical chain reaction in between of oxygen and combustible material or vaporous fuel ( solid : wood , liquid : petrol ) . To keep on the process of oxidation produces heat and light . This fact is know as FIRE

Fire needs 3 things to exist :

  • Four different class of FUEL :
    • A : wood , paper , cloth
    • B : flammable liquid , oil
    • C : Gasoline gas , hydrogen gas , butan
    • D : Potassium , sodium , aluminum
    • E : Electrical equipment
    • F : Cooking oil
  • OXYGEN
  • HEAT

IT’S MAKE FIRE TRIANGLE “ fire triangle

For the purpose of extinguishers work , first need to know a little bit about fire .
Four things must be present at the same time in order to make flame .
1. Enough oxygen to sustain combustion .
2. Enough heat to raise to material to its ignition temperature .
3. Some sort of fuel , chemical and exothermic reaction that is flame .
** Essentially , extinguishers put out flame by taking away one or more elements of the fire triangle . **

In a typically wood fire :

Something the wood reach to a high temperature. The heat comes from lots of different things — a match, focused light, friction, lightning etc.

When the wood reaches about 150 degrees Celsius , the heat decomposes some of the cellulose material that makes up the wood.

Some of the decomposed material is released as volatile gases. We know these gases as smoke. Smoke is compounds of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. The rest of the material forms pure carbon, and ash, which is all of the nonburnable minerals in the wood .

The actual burning of wood then happens in two separate reactions:

  • When the volatile gases are hot about 260 degrees C for wood , the compound molecules break apart, and the atoms recombine with the oxygen to form water, carbon dioxide and other products. In other words, they burn.
  • The carbon in the char combines with oxygen as well, and this is a much slower reaction.

As they heat up, the rising carbon atoms (as well as atoms of other material) give out light. This “heat produces light” effect is called incandescence, and it is the same kind of thing that creates light in a light bulb. It is what causes the visible flame. Flame color varies depending on what you’re burning and how hot it is. Color variation within in a flame is caused by gases . Typically, the hottest part of a flame — the base — glows blue, and the cooler parts at the top glow orange or yellow.

OXYGEN :

The air we breathe is about 21% oxygen , it needs only 16% oxygen .

HEAT :

The energy necessary to increase the temperature of fuel to where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur .

Auto Ignition Point

Auto Ignition Point :

1. AUTO IGNITION POINT :

This is the lowest temperature at which the substance will ignite spontaneously that is the substance will burn without introduction of a flame or ignition source .

2.FLASH POINT :

It is the lowest temperature at which there is a sufficient vaporization of the substance to produce vapor which will flash monotonously when flame is applied .

3. FIRE POINT :

It is the lowest temperature at which the heat from combustion of a burning to vapor is capable of producing sufficient vapor enable combustion to continue .

  • Maximum surface temperature of some oils and gases :

  • Surface temperature measuring instrument :

Specifications:

  • Measurement range: -50 °C ~ 380 °C ( -58 °F ~716°F )
  • Accuracy: -50°C ~ 0°C( ± 3°C), 0°C ~100°C (± 1.5°C), 100°C~330°C (±1.5%)
  • Repeatability: 1 °C or 1% of reading
  • Resolution:     0.1°C or 0.1°F
  • Response Time:500mSec, 95% response
  • Impassivity : 0.95 Preset
  • Distance To Spot Ration: 12:1
  • Spectral response: 8~14μm
  • Storage Temperature: -20°C ~ 60°C ( -4 °F ~140 °F )
  • Operating Temperature: 0°C ~ 40°C ( 32 °F ~104 °F )
  • Operating Humidity:10-95% RH non-condensing, up to 30°C (86°F )
  • 2*AAA 1.5V battery

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POSSIBLE CAUSE OF FIRE :

i . Electrical fire : 23%

ii . Smoking : 18%

iii . Friction : 10%

iv . Over heating : 8%

v . Hot surface : 7%

vi . Spontaneous combustion : 4%

vii . Spark : 5%

viii . Static electricity : 2%

ix . Arson : 3%

x . Exposure : 3%

xi . Mechanical fault : 2%

xii . Lightening : 1%

xiii . Molted substance : 1%

xiv . Chemical reaction : 1%

xv . Miscellaneous : 1%

EQUIPMENT OF FIRE FIGHTER :

i . Physically fit .

ii . Mentally alert .

iii . Local topography .

iv . Kin for site .

v . Brave .

vi . Eager to learn .

vii . Honest .

viii . Should not lire .

ix . Obedient .

x . Do not borrow the money from your superior .

NOTE :

To fight the fire , save life and properties from fire & emergency situation .